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Einkorn could represent a valid alternative for producing functional baked products. In bakery, processing could contribute to functionality [ 17 , 18 ]. Sourdough fermentation, involving the inter-relation between microbial metabolism and cereal enzymes, has been shown to greatly affect the functional features of leavened baked goods [ 19 ].

This type of fermentation may produce new nutritionally active molecules such as functional peptides and amino acid derivatives [ 20 , 21 ], deriving from either the bacterial hydrolytic activity [ 20 ] or from their own synthetic pathways [ 22 ]. To exert a positive action in the human body, bioactive compounds must be hydrolyzed from the food matrix, and be absorbed in the intestine.

The bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds, i. Fermentation by lactic acid bacteria may improve nutrient bioaccessibility and produce compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity [ 19 ]. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria have been reported to release or synthesize antioxidant and anti-inflammatory peptides during fermentation of cereal flours [ 20 ].

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In this work, different wheat and einkorn flours were analyzed for their content in carotenoids and phenolic acids. The richest in these functional compounds were selected, and used to bake breads with two different fermentation procedures conventional and sourdough. Breads were digested in vitro using a dynamic gastro-intestinal digestor, and characterized before and after digestion. Based on integrated results, four breads were selected, and the product of their intestinal digestion was supplemented to Caco-2 intestinal cells.

Cells were exposed to inflammatory stress, and the effect of supplementation on different inflammation markers was assessed. Overall, this study has evaluated how the type of flour and the type of fermentation can influence the nutritional features of bread, and the bioaccessibility and anti-inflammatory effects of its functional compounds.

The combination of different results provides an integrated vision supporting the possible health benefits of einkorn-based bread. Materials and Methods 2.

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Standard solutions were obtained by diluting stock solutions with the mobile phase initial composition. Christ Alpha 1—4 LD freeze dryer were used. Flour Samples Refined wheat flours Triticum aestivum L. Einkorn flours or ancient flour, AF including organic whole and refined flours obtained from Triticum monococcum L.

Monlis, were provided by Prometeo Urbino, Italy. To prepare sourdough, g of flour were gently mixed with mL of water and inoculated with 80 mL of a water suspension of each separately grown strain. As mentioned previously, the effect of strain hardening, caused by an increase of the dislocation density or by interaction of dislocations, is an important parameter as part of unconventional heat treatment. Equation 2 indicates that when the dislocation density greatly increases, the effect of strain hardening should make it possible to obtain values close to the theoretical strength level.

The hardening effect of dislocations depends not only on their spacing but also on the interaction characteristics. For example, after cold deformation, the dislocation density is around cm-2 which, according to equation 2 , corresponds to high strain hardening reaching values of approximately MPa. In this case, the mean dislocation spacing is around 10 nm which corresponds to approximately 30 interatomic distances. A shortcoming of this strengthening mechanism is that the material in the work-hardened condition has very low plastic properties.

Like the dislocations in the parent matrix, a hardening effect is also exerted by the grain boundaries which form obstacles to dislocation motion. The yield strength increases with an increasing number of grain boundaries, i. From a general viewpoint, the effect of grain refining may be regarded as highly significant, from both the viewpoint of increasing the strength characteristics and that of exerting a beneficial effect on the resistance to brittle fracture.

The total effect of this mechanism is restricted by the possibilities of refining ferrite grains to the level corresponding to approximately mm.

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In this very 'fine recrystallization' of the austenitic matrix it is usually not possible to obtain finer ferrite grains than the previously mentioned level. The effect of segregation of interstitial atoms on the value of constant ky in a ferritic steel in relation to cooling rate and, consequently, different degrees of development of segregation of interstitial atoms , is shown in Fig.

The grain boundaries are highly effective obstacles to dislocation motion in cases of extensive segregation of interstitial atoms to the grain boundaries. In addition, the effects of substitutional and interstitial atoms in the ferritic matrix overlap. However, this solubility usually decreases with an increase of the value of hardening parameter a in equation 4.

The hardening effect of interstitial atoms in the body-centred cubic lattice is far stronger than the effect of substitutional atoms.

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Since the solubility of carbon atoms in the ferritic matrix is very low, the high hardening effect can be utilized only if it is possible to achieve a high degree of supersaturation of the metallic matrix, as in the case of martensitic phase transformations.

Figure 4 shows that solid solution hardening is an important component of the strength of martensite, as observed previously by, for example, Winchell and Cohen in FeNiC alloys.

However, lattice defects dislocations, phase boundaries of martensite plates or laths form during this phase transformation and also contribute to matrix hardening. This type of hardening Example of hardening of the matrix by dissolved atoms. The hardening effect also depends on whether the precipitates are coherent or not.

Equation 5 shows that in the case of a relatively high volume fraction of precipitates f, or for precipitation of very fine particles precipitates with a small diameter d , it is possible to obtain values close to the theoretical strength of the iron matrix, mentioned previously. Figure 5 shows the calculated values of the yield strength of alpha iron containing precipitated hard particles Dependence of yield strength on the size of precipitates for different volume fraction of precipitates f.

These dependences also hold for very small particles, provided they are not intersected by dislocations. If the precipitates are intersected by dislocations, the yield strength values, resulting from the hardening effect of the precipitates, are considerably lower. The dependences given for various volume fractions of the precipitated particles represent the upper attainable values of dispersion hardening of alpha iron. If very fine precipitates form usually coherent precipitates , it is quite possible that the precipitates will partly 'contribute' to the deformation process, i.

In this case, the strength characteristics of structural steels are lower than those corresponding to equation 5. The resultant maximum strength level will depend on the parameters of the induced stress field around the precipitates, on the physical metallurgy properties of the precipitates,6 and on the ratio of the intersected and the so-called hard precipitates which the dislocations must bypass.

However, it may be assumed that the hardening effect of the precipitated coherent particles becomes stronger with an increase of the difference of their lattice parameters in comparison with the lattice parameter of the matrix.

The increase of the yield strength of this steel is in excellent agreement with equation 5. For example, dispersion hardening is utilized widely in maraging steels where the strength of the martensitic matrix is increased by precipitates of various types of intermetallic phases. The differences in the effect of these parameters on the development of plastic deformation are reflected in differences in the form of the stressstrain curve when the yield strength is exceeded.

The first of these cases is usually observed in the majority of metallic materials and their alloys, including austenitic steels.

The second case is found mainly in tensile deformation of ferritic steels. It may be concluded, in a simplified manner, that in ferritic steels the nature of the discontinuity observed at the yield stress is similar to that of the nature of the discontinuity observed in whiskers.

These dislocations are usually pinned by interstitial atoms or precipitates formed on them. In metals characterized by the continuous stressstrain curve without any pronounced yield point, the strain hardening process starts in the matrix immediately in accordance with an increase of the dislocation density. This difference in the behavior of the ferritic matrix is caused by the high susceptibility of interstitial carbon, nitrogen atoms to segregation to defects of the matrix to both grain boundaries and dislocations in the grain volume.

This dependence is also shown in Fig. As already mentioned, the segregation of interstitial atoms does not take place only towards the grain boundaries but also to the dislocations in the volume of the matrix resulting in pinning of these dislocations.

These dislocations are then immobile and plastic deformation of the matrix starts only when new sources are activated, or the dislocations are released. A case of simultaneous segregation of the interstitial atoms to the moving dislocations may also occur. This strenghtening mechanism operates at elevated temperatures, as also indicated by the schematic stressstrain curve determined at different test temperatures, Fig.Keywords: einkorn, wheat, carotenoids, bread, phenolic acids, sourdough fermentation, in vitro digestion, Caco-2 cells, anti-inflammatory effect 1.

Slide the power switch to Hold. download and sell almost anything 13 May Re: ford or holden wheels, how do you tell. Eco-Drive One Limited If the precipitates are intersected by dislocations, the yield strength values, resulting from the hardening effect of the precipitates, are considerably lower.

The hardening effect of interstitial atoms in the body-centred cubic lattice is far stronger than the effect of substitutional atoms. Figure 4 shows that solid solution hardening is an important component of the strength of martensite, as observed previously by, for example, Winchell and Cohen in FeNiC alloys. Dimensions Length: cm Width: 57cm Height: 86cm Folded: 82cm x 57cm x 39cm Travel-Lite has a unique design that enables you in many cars boots situations to actually roll the rear frame into the boot without actually lifting it - 'It's just so easy when you know how.

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