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tions in productions of Jméno růže /The. Name of The Rose/, Chicago or Pokrevní bratři. /The Blood Brothers/ staged in Brno City. Theatre or the opera Nabucco. Odpůrci apelovali o rozum a objektivitu, šlo jim o dobré jméno české vědy za Instantiations of this new trend are films like Kavasakiho Růže () by Jan. adjective přídavné jméno gram. adjudic/ar denomin/ar pojmenovat, dát jméno; -ation pojmenování, označování .. erisipel *ery růže, erysipel med.
It would seem that for many years approximately after the s , these were the kind of images one found of places containing certain elements of the Orient. They tended to take the form of stereotypes rooted in pop culture. These images, as well as the whole cinematic universe, are highly stylized, which is something that can be seen both in movies obviously meant for entertainment and commercial purposes as well as in independent films of the greats.
Has is a case in point. Reconnaissance 41 inscribing them seamlessly into the phantasmagoric, surrealist sceno- graphy, which helps build the Arabian atmosphere, full of irony, playfulness and adventure, following Jan Potocki, who used in his novel the structure of One Thousand and One Nights. This character brings to the film elements of eastern orientalism, though in a rather comic tone, brought about partly by the actor himself, whose previous work draws association with plebian characters and whose face does not correspond to our image of an Arabic prince.
In this way the exotic character not only introduces an oriental-fantastic element into the presented space, but also attempts to emphasize its own artificiality, conventionality and, in a word, its arbitrariness in a distinctly stylized world, immersed as it is in a comic book pedigree.
Far Eastern i. There he experiences a forbidden love with a young Chinese woman, the daugh- ter of the Chinese family. This melodramatic story is subordinated to its scenery to such a de- gree that one might ask whether it was not merely an excuse to locate it in such a distant place.
What is important is that the Siberia depic- ted in both these films has become increasingly more Asian, Far Eastern, i. Unfortunately, in his attempt to follow in the footsteps of Raiders of the Lost Arc, Piestrak, failing to employ pastiche or at least parody, instead resorts to direct imitation. Exotic places, mysterious events, often drawn from the past see also: The Golden Mahmudia , as well as action and adventure plots, have all too often led our filmmakers astray.
We could add that Po- lish cinema has managed to tame this exotic mystery by making use of familiar images, far removed from the pretentions held by the West to supervise less developed cultures, understood by researchers of orientalism as the great Western narrative. Instead of this, these films present picture-postcard places with an exotic stamp. What is important here is the changing story and backdrop with the type of egotism being completely interchangeable.
These films are based on stereotypes which draw on that type of knowledge held by the vie- wers. This is clearly visible in some sitcoms, e. This character, who speaks in comically broken Polish, is a mafia liaison embroiled in the drug trade between Asia and Poland.
It would seem that he embodies the satiri- cal image of the usually rich or industrious foreigners living in the poor but otherwise streetwise Poland of the s. The character of the Easterner created by our cinema is perhaps a more interesting and slightly more complex character, though nonetheless based on stereotypes.
Intruder and enemy from the East A foreigner, a person from the East is often an enemy or a traitor. Jerzy Hoffman and With Fire and Sword dir. Reconnaissance 43 liberate itself from the stereotypical image ascribed to people from the East, who are often depicted as wild, dangerous, but also fascina- ting in their physical, cultural and mental otherness. This is especially visible in Colonel Wolodyjowski, where the most fascinating character is Azja Tuhajbejowicz son of the Tatar, Tuhaj-bej known from the novel and film adaptation, With Fire and Sword played by Daniel Olbrychski.
Wild, passionate, aggressive, deceptive and deceived, he enlisted in the Turkish army which was at that time marching for Europe. This depiction yields an image of a man who is brutal, uncompromising and vindictive, someone who still has Asian blood running through his veins, despite all his experiences in Po- land. This is a man who is authentically fascinated by Polish women but is rejected by them on account of his race.
The adaptation of this work is reminiscent of the way other parts of the Trilogy had been adapted for the screen. The viewer was to have the easiest possible task.
The generic diversity rooted in the novel lends itself well to a film adaptation. Hoffman combined the elements of a romance with elements of action- adventure in a cloak and dagger convention. The chivalric saga tone gave the story seriousness; the symbolic content, though coupled only with military mat- ters, were all the more visible in the film.
The same characteristics can be found in the adaptation of With Fire and Sword. The image of the Orient knocking on the gates of We- stern civilization is here different from the one found in Colonel Wolo- dyjowski, as it is less individualized and more reminiscent of a colorful goblin pieced together from many characters representing the court of the Crimean Khan, Islam III Giray Adam Ferency.
That is, the enemy is not only cruel and deceptive like in the roles portrayed by Olbrychski but is also completely disparate in his erotic preferences. Wiktor Grodecki wrote and directed adapta- tion, employing in it elements of the grotesque to depict the Western world of , a world in danger of being consumed by Chinese pan- communism, against which only Poland is still putting up a fight.
Apart from that, Wang is also charac- terized by the cunning, sadistic, domineering manner with which he treats his own people and Poles, as well as by cruelty, a trait stereoty- pically ascribed to people from the Far East. Polish cinema rarely ventures off to this region of the world, though this is recently beginning to change. In the eponymous mission in Polish special forces helped to extract a few American spies from Iraq.
The political relevance and suspense of the action sequences portrayed in the film are undercut by the fact that the Iraqi soldiers and policemen are completely powerless to deal with the Polish commandoes. The Iraqis are a weak and anonymous enemy, as if unworthy of a more nuanced psychological portrayal; they are a collective opponent that is easily fooled, despite the reputa- tion of their dangerous leader — Saddam Hussein. The film depicts shrewd Poles outmaneuvering their enemy at every turn; these ene- mies not only by virtue of alliances but, or perhaps also, by virtue of personal reasons: In all, the battle is rather an adventure in an exotic environment, which compels us to return to the influence of Henryk Sienkiewicz on Polish cinema.
Reconnaissance 45 Wilderness and its two film adaptations play an important role, as they raise questions related to the presence and development of the colo- nial stance as well as its later modifications. Although, of course, the story takes place in Africa, not in the Near East or Asia, the image of Arabs, as they are depicted in those novels, is characteristic for those geo-cultural areas.
Returning to Sienkiewicz and his In Desert and Wilderness, we can observe in this work an aversion towards Arabs and the construction of a defined negative representation of another race. For instance, let us turn our attention to the negative representation of the Mahdi Messiah and his fellow tribesmen. We know today that the Mahdist War in Sudan was part of the independence struggle —84, — local forces were eventually quelled by Anglo-Egyptian forces , though not without religious fanaticism.
To some extent we should agree with the fact that, generally speaking, this perspective on the Other is rooted in a certain area of Polish literature permeated with colonial ideology, e.
Furthermore, we can make the following claim, in line with Edward W. Therefore as much as the West itself, The Orient is an idea that has a history and a tradition of thought, imagery, and vocabulary that have given it reality and presence in and for the West.
The two geographical entities thus support and to an extent reflect each other. Said The dominant feature of this representation is a fantasy concerning the threat from the East, which has to be eliminated here or there Operation Simoom, Mission Afghanistan.
Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act of accumulation and acquisi- tion. Africa is presented in this work as heaven on earth and not as a place of adventure and war. This way Hood reverses the proportions of how this continent had been represented by his predecessor by shifting attention to the black natives and also, which is key, by mi- nimally accentuating Arab violence connected with their struggle for independence.
However, for this to happen the director had to be an African. Incidentally, this directing job was fortuitous, because the previous director, Maciej Dudkiewicz, fell ill and was persuaded by the producer, Waldemar Dziki, to find a replacement. Taming the Other In recent years, an important and a frequent perspective on how someone from the East functions in contact with Poles or, what is even more interesting, in contemporary Poland.
Often, it is no longer the enemy but the Other who slowly becomes familiar and with some difficulties is eventually tamed, also through love. This is the situation we find in, e. After escaping from a Belarusian mafia operating a child trafficking ring, a Polish woman makes her way to a refugee camp, where she gets involved in a difficult love affair with an Algerian fugitive, and encounters obstacles of an action-adventure variety.
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Reconnaissance 47 and is also something that is sought and found by characters from the previously mentioned films, which take place in Manchuria. It is inte- resting, however, to turn our attention to the Other from the East, who gains experience in contact with contemporary Poland. Three films are especially telling in this regard, as they portray this problem in different conventions, which are: Extras is an example of a film within a film.
A Chinese film crew comes to Poland in search of extras with somber faces they heard that in Poland they will find plenty of such people for a bleak melo- drama they are filming.
For this purpose they chose a small, provin- cial town of Konin and its residents. She made up for her unsuccessful private life by learning Chinese, which has now proven useful during the casting.
However, contrary to the expectations and assumptions of the film crew, these ordinary people begin to shine and come alive on the set of the film. In time the Chinese film crew begin to appreciate Polish hospitality and particularly the Polish fondness for feasting, and the Poles in turn begin to discover in their guests something else than slant-eyed characters from some martial arts film screaming at one another incomprehensibly.
Stereotypes and communication diffi- culties are partially overcome in accord with the conventions of a si- tuational comedy; however, these conventions are also the basis for the comedy. Poland is not only a good place for a film location and the exotic Chinese are just like any other nation in their universal human reactions and ne- eds.
There is nothing in this film that would suggest a clash of civili- zations, whose drama and finality were described by Samuel Hun- tington; it is replaced by familiar and homey images, which eliminate the exoticism and the otherness of the Other.
However, it is also the case that our cinema describes these contacts in a more dramatic way, as testified above by My Flesh My Blood and Essential Killing. His male chauvinism, which prompts him to treat this woman as an object for sexual and procreational fulfillment, also leads him to treat her as someone weaker by virtue of her race and her lack of access to the rights and privileges he enjoys.
Her Otherness in this regard defines her weaker position. The end of the film, however, reasserts — to a certain extent — the dominance of the white male, who before his death en- trusts Yen Ha to his friend, who is to take care of her and his child. This is an arrangement agreed upon by both parties. This film presents the Vietnamese as an invisible minority, which has to serve and remain anonymous in their numbers. A Polish woman is indifferent towards this mass, though any Polish-Vietnamese emotio- nal relations are seen every time as an exception to this attitude.
My Flesh My Blood also proves that although stereotypical ideas of an inferior race and inferior sex are still very much alive in Poland, these stereotypes can be undermined by the mere presence of people who are representatives of these stereotypes.
Their patient presence gra- dually leads towards reconciliation, though this process seems to take a long time. In Essential Killing we follow Mohammed Vincent Gallo , who is either a Taliban member connected to terrorism or me- rely an ordinary and unjustly imprisoned Muslim, as he escapes from a secret American base in Central Europe Poland? Besieged from all sides, he is ready to go to any lengths to survive, but, on the other hand, it is precisely in those conditions that he is able to find selfless help.
Reconnaissance 49 tions by way of paradoxes. The fugitive, in this case the main charac- ter with the camera following his every step, does not utter one word, and his motivation is presented as being solely physical and biologi- cal. He learns of this motivation from his environment by means of the dynamic action. We never discover any deeper motivation related to his past. He is alone and cornered, and also extremely dangerous. The military machine which has been deployed against him is ano- nymous and disproportionally large.
In such conditions, anyone would give in, turned to a hunted animal. On the other hand, as I have indicated earlier, the audience might see in him a human and will endow him with the humanity that he is denied by the world. Maciej Dejczer, the director of this show, attempts to be completely neutral as he rea- listically depicts war.
There are ordinary, good Afghans, even coope- rating with the army, but there are also those who ambush and de- stroy convoys. Dejczer does not avoid the most difficult topic: This distant war is presented as a confrontation of vague and ambiguous arguments and positions, something that is best observed in the doubts, breakdowns and mistakes made by our soldiers.
Said for its racism and colonialism par ex- cellence. Even though most films belong to the second group, which represent Asians, Arabs or Muslims as enemies, this situation is slowly beginning to change. To this day Polish cinema has not widened its space of un- derstanding, though filmmakers are certainly not against their Oriental characters; in fact, they are trying to evoke in the audience some kind of understanding, and even — quite often — empathy for these characters.
The question is whether the latter stance is also part of the imperial-colonial discourse? We should remember that no di- scourse represents reality neutrally and transparently, but works to ideologize it. We should notice that the problem of binary oppositions is gradually disappearing.
In Poland this process is based on our hi- story, economic development and geopolitical conditions, which have all rendered inclusion, obviously symbolic in any of these universes, changeable and unclear. We can see the reflection of this in our cine- ma also in regards to our relationship with the Orient. The Location of Culture. London and New York: Kornacki, Krzysztof. Kino Nowej Przygody.
Teorie literatury XX wieku. Wydawnictwo Znak, Historia filmu polskiego. Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe, Said, Edward. Culture and Imperialism. Vintage Books, Penguin, This perspective, even if it has changed, has rarely led to a reorientation of the preva- lent narrative model. Thanks to this performance, many people — not only theatre spectators and not only Poles — began to consider the topic of post- war displacement and re-settlement.
From then on, the subject of de- racination and rootedness has increasingly appeared in Polish theatre, depicted as part of a conscious policy of the state which was carried out in the past. The attention paid by writers as well as film and thea- tre authors to a topic removed from Polish historical discourse — of the Germans from Pomerania, Lubuskie, Prussia, and Lower Silesia — or people resettled within Operation Vistula, is just one example of the emergent postcolonial awareness of Polish artists.
The practice pursued by an increasing number of authors of Polish historical dramas is to break free of the tendencies traditionally pre- vailing in Polish historiography and to open the avenues it has over- looked.
The strength of the images persistent in public con- sciousness stems not only from their incessant reiteration, but also from the support given to them by the authorities and institutions dominant in Poland, most notably the Institute of National Remem- brance. The general desire of theatre authors to dismantle the mono- lith of an unambiguous narrative of the past is nothing new: They were at odds, even if for obvious reasons not always overtly and directly, with the existing perception of the past as promoted by the regime.
Outstanding directors were in opposition to the prevailing views and visions of the past, which were simultaneously established by theatrical institutions such as Television Theatre with its Teatr Faktu TV series — and the vast majority of institutional rep- ertory theatres, subject to censorship and ideological cultural pro- gramming. The Drama of Shifting Borders in Polish Contemporary Theatre 53 linians, or Ukrainians, relocated to the West were ultimately de- prived of their voice, which incidentally had never been fully given to them or sufficiently respected.
Several years had to elapse since to effect a change in how artists addressed earlier historical relations.
At first, the Others men- tioned above appeared as shadows of the past, deprived of their own voice, triggering a nostalgia for what had been irrevocably gone.
Although in the beginning of the nineties, ideas of significant ethnic diversity in the history of these areas appeared in different parts of Poland, their significance did not exceed the local i. The practice of setting new realistic conven- tions almost silenced repertory theatres with regard to the workings of memory and the need to verify the patterns of historical thinking. The themes of dominance, subordination and their historical back- ground, present in the texts of the day, rarely implied opening up a debate; rather, their purpose was to confirm the dominant narrative model.
The setting up of Scena Faktu [Fact Stage] on Polish Television is a perfect example of this tendency; this series in subsequent years increased in importance in the repertoire of the Television Theatre.
Today, it seems that the opening of a new chapter linking culture and historical policy of the state provoked this reaction of the artists and influenced the broadening of the perspectives they adopted. Consciously, they tried to attract the attention of audiences and encourage them to a debate, seeking to open discourse not only to demographic and historical variability, but also to the practice of historiography.
One of the first examples of such activities in theatre was the much-acclaimed play Transfer! In its various incarnations, this practice is also de- scribed using other, parallel terms, which emphasize its chosen features: The use of this phrase also defines the assumptions of the then-current management of the TV Theatre: Deracination and Rootedness.
The Drama of Shifting Borders in Polish Contemporary Theatre 55 Following the gambit made in the first decade of the 21st century, Polish drama and theatre abound in examples of various examples of thematising and polemical use of historical discourse.
Directors and authors combine in their artistic statements the problems of power, subordination and politics, undermining the authority of their estab- lished narratives. The impermanence of authority and the observation of the borders moving through the changing fronts of war, of the decisions made at the top and of the alliances of those in power offer a glimpse into the grand history from the local perspective of the marginalized individuals and social groups. The subtitle: Its heroes are wandering westwards with the units of the First Polish Army.
By in- troducing the communist authority in the newly acquired territories, they realize the postulates similar to those proclaimed by the Polish Maritime and Colonial League, created in I demand that the Polish army move westward and reach Berlin and that nothing change Demirski The author patterned himself in his text on the characters known from the Polish well-known TV series Four Tankers and a Dog — , portrayed as oppressed individuals favouring the dominant political, ideological and military option.
Each and every one of their movements is watched by the dog Szarik, here cast as a Russian agent, who every now and then reminds everyone of the warning and order of Red Army commanders: Theatre aiming at opening up historical discourse may contribute to the extraction of what has been hidden for years, to the resonation of what is programmatically silenced, to the utterance of what is hushed down. The postcolonial context, exposed by some theatre authors, may provoke attempts to more comprehensively de- scribe the situation of marginalized groups and individuals.
The Drama of Shifting Borders in Polish Contemporary Theatre 57 of individuals directly affected by the shifting frontlines, changes of the authorities in power and of the borders during World War II and soon afterwards.
This subject, though irregularly and infrequently, began to appear in Polish literature and film, as well as in drama and theatre. The aforementioned Transfer! It consists in the involvement of individuals, such as participants of events, who personally, in front of the audience, talk about themselves, their own experiences and the history they remember.
Their multi-voiced memories informed the audience about the relations between representatives of various na- tions, which changed depending on the political circumstances. The characters appearing in the play often involve Jews, who in the stage presentation remain absent victims of history, devoid of their own voice. Among the memories of events and circumstances recalled, it was precisely their absence that triggered the strongest emotions, in both the audiences and in the participants of the play themselves.
A dramatic element combining all the threads appearing in Transfer! The characters who appear on the stage speak in their own name. In the eyes of the spectators they gain the authenticity which is impossible to obtain in the traditional theatre.
As credible witnesses, they are also convincing as authors of the play, although its script, despite being based on their memories, was writ- ten by a team of dramaturges. The political volatility, highlighted by changes in the way children and young people learn, is best seen by one of the men in one of the initial scenes of the show: As put by another of the protagonists of Transfer!
The old woman recalls her own memories: At the same time, how- ever, the leading role of German soldiers is indicated; they carry out executions of civilians of different nationalities. The play gives their children the chance to speak; they would not see their parents as exe- cutioners, but rather as victims of the system.
A woman who men- tions that she could not stand the voice of Goebbels during radio broadcasts of his propaganda speeches, defends her mother and fa- ther, once dedicated to the national-socialist cause: Blame or no-blame. Neither my father nor my mother are guilty. They are not guilty and I will not say this tonight. They lived in this system and could not do anything about it.
I do not want to hear that my parents were Nazis Funke, Kla- ta, Majewski Citing words and imagining the lifestyle and behaviour of real characters is a special case of stage acts. Directly quoting on the stage the participants of past events, their witnesses and victims, i. The words used are a tes- timony of the past, regardless of the pronunciation and the degree of illusiveness of stage acts. A special case in which theatre begins to function as a tool of historical discourse occurs when the protagonists provide personal narratives about their own experiences — depicting their private, biased view of universal history.
Their personal impres- sions, preconceptions and the consciousness of the past in their memory become a full-fledged document of the past. This is the case of Transfer!
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The second example of a play I would like to recall in the context of border shifts and resettlements is Trash Story, based on a text by Magda Fertacz Fertacz , presented in June last year at the Lubuski Teatr Dramatyczny. The stage, apart from the characters living today: There is the spirit of Alexander, who drowned a few years before in the river behind the house, when he visited his home during a break in his military service in a war-torn country in the East Iraq or Afghanistan, symbolizing unfulfilled Polish colonial ambitions.
There are also ghosts of the Germans — of women who lived in the area and committed suicide in the face of the advances of the Red Army. In the original text, only one character originated in the netherworld — Ursulka, hanged by her own mother in the mids.
Now they are participating in a show that combines levels of existence: A chorus of nine spirits tells the story of Ursula.
The women who provide her text, acting out identical emotions as a group, remain individual, separate stage entities. However, the beginning is dark and disturbing. When the audience enters the theatre room, projected on the screen behind which the stage is located are scenes of SA divisions marching before Adolf Hitler. The vision of joy and pride of the cheering crowds does not screen the spectre of the upcoming war from present-day specta- tors.
Their stories tie into the local history from Lubuskie region, enriching dramaturgically the text of Trash Story. They do not destroy the coherence of the drama or lim- it its target audience. This shows the individual dimensions of the grand history. Their demands questioned the sense of educational, artistic and educational work and brought disaster to the city: All stories end up with a dramatic leitmotif: They refer to the events of the early , when the crossing of the former German border by the Red Army was accompanied by a wave of mass suicides of the local population, pri- marily women and children.
Having finished their stories, Ursulka stand up and, their arms straightened in the fascist greeting, sing a march popular in the Third Reich: When they depart, the canvas of the screen rises and the audience moves to the stage to sit on the chairs prepared for them.
The main part of the show begins; the protagonist is a place saturated with a tragic history rather than any of the characters of the play. There is a white house with a red tile roof in this place; before the war Ursulka spent here her happy childhood. The daughter of the Poles who settled here after the war recalls it totally differently.
She was afraid of the house. The house near the river, the yard and the vegetable garden store memories. One of the most significant and multifaceted discussions on histo- ry, both at the national and local levels, has been taking place for sev- eral years on the stages of Polish theatres, to a greater extent than in other fields of art.
Its significance lies in the observation that the aim is not merely to change the content of existing historical paradigms or to abolish existing versions of past events in favour of their alterna- tive variants, but rather to change the general perception of the phe- nomenon of history, which until now — as a narrative emerging in line with the narrative conventions of fine literature White has also af- fected individual memory. In theatre, thanks to the individualization of viewpoints, the notion of collective cultural memory, derived from the work of Maurice Halbwachs Hassman , allowing Jan Assman to lift the opposition between memory and history Borowski 65—74 , shifts to the memory of private experience.
Breaking up narratives into many speaking subjects, even if each of them is dominated by the current version of history, helps preserve the specific features that distinguish and individualize the story told. Typical forms of narration contribute to the elimination of po- lyphonies. In dramatic genres, however, it is an inescapable element: Polyph- ony, dispersal and the assumed contradictory points of view affect the blur of a homogeneous perception of history, dominated by estab- lished symbolic representation.
In this way, sensitive to the voice of the Other, dramas introduce a polemic element into the existing au- thoritarian image of the past. The exposure and visibility of the silent perspective influences the perception of the theatre spectator, laying bare previously unknown, silent or displaced dimensions of reality. Dramas of this type — discovering the hidden — shape an awareness of the present time by creating a discourse on the legacy of the past.
Cultural Memory and Early Civilization: Writing, Remembrance, and Political Imagination. Cambridge University Press, Borowski, Mateusz. Przeciw-historia w polskim teatrze i dramacie. Instytut im. Jerzego Grotowskiego, Dialog 12 Wydawnictwo Krytyki Politycznej, Dreysse, Miriam, et al.
Rimini Protokoll. Experts of the Everyday. Translated by Daniel Belasco Rogers et al. Alexander Verlag: Berlin, Fertacz, Magda. Dialog 4 Teksty dla teatru. Gandhi, Leela. Postcolonial Theory. A Critical Introduction. Columbia University Press, Dialog 6 Gazeta Polska 15 Polityka 47 Gazeta Polska Codziennie Sieradzki, Jacek.
Przeciw-historia w polskim teatrze i drama- cie.
Odra 1 White, Hayden. Critical In- quiry, Vol. They can be presented as a mark of modernity or of the backwardness of a particular society. Lately, these discourses have become the building blocks in the con- struction of the West-East divide. Perhaps we find ourselves in a criti- cal moment of this process. The European Union supports the legali- zation of same-sex marriages, whereas the Eurasian Union, the brainchild of Vladimir Putin, is in favor of restrictions on what they call homosexual propaganda.
A counterpoint to this conceptualization will be the idea presented in De-centering Western Sexualities. I would like to fracture this essentialized image and historicize the emancipatory discourse. Its reconstruction is not the easiest of tasks, because Polish institu- tionalized historiography almost completely ignores the homosexual context of history.
This is certainly a blank spot, even though Poland is an exceptionally fruitful subject for such an inquiry. Poland has a very liberal penal code from , which decriminalized same-sex intercourse between adults.
However, this law was removed from the penal code in , which entered into force in In the context of European and American law, Polish law appeared very progressive, though it should be emphasized that the lives of nonheterosexual people were anything but colorful, be- cause homosexuality in everyday life was still considered pathologi- cal and taboo.
The emancipation waves1 meshed with the next decades. This pe- riodization could be summarily presented in the following way: Die drei Emanzipationswellen der Schwulen in Polen. The outline of this concept appeared in my book Warkocki Three Waves of Homosexual Emancipation in Poland 67 1.
It is, therefore, worth noticing that the beginning of the s inaugurated two works which overtly thematize distinct though similar versions of mascu- line homosexual identity. The first story is about a brilliant artist, Michael Ange- lo, seen from the perspective of his overlooked student; the second is about the meeting of an exemplary professor with a German homo- sexual in Polish literature, homosexuals were often depicted as for- eigners , who took great pleasure in remaining on the margins of so- ciety which of course shocked the professor.
Both of these works could be construed as existential propositions for homosexual men; in fact, these were the only valid possibilities, given the very meager palate of available roles. In short then: Artist or Pervert, compensation through art or hypocritically remaining at the margins of society. Tertium not datur. His protagonist is neither an Artist nor a Per- vert.
Krzeszowiec presents a painfully emerging proposition for a new form of existence and identity: Thus, a new decade was inaugurated this novel was written at the end of the 80s and was published in This is how the issue of identity appears from the point of view of literature. Transnational Homosexuals in Communist Poland. Cross-border Flows in Gay and Les- bian Magazines. Palgrave MacMillan, Most im- portantly, something had changed in the political discourse. Accord- ing to Fiedotow, the topic of homosexuality appeared during the period — about one hundred times; this is insignificant com- pared to what appeared in , but very significant compared to what appeared before the s.
The following is a fragment from this article: Ridiculed and pushed off to the margins of society, discriminated against by every without exception institution and social organization, persecuted by ho- mophobes, assaulted physically and verbally by brute morons with the tacit ap- proval of the authorities of this world, isolated and abandoned by their country, church and science […].
Do homosexuals have any rights in our country? Is there anyone interested in helping them in their obvious personal troubles? Is anyone concerned about maintaining the stability of a relationship between two men? Not much is still known about this operation. Who were these sexual queers of the s? How did they see themselves, how did they define themselves?
It turns out that activists affili- ated with the International Gay Association IGA 2 created a special cell which maintained lines of communication with the countries of the Communist Bloc — East Europe Information Pool EEIP , whose task was to gather information about the legal and social situation of homosexual people and to establish contact with them. These sources provide an insight into the sad autobiography of homosexuals.
Fiedotow points to the characteristic topoi: She also describes the various strategies of concealment, ranging from double lives in heterosexual marriages Darski claims that most homosexuals in Poland were married to solitude by choice. The most interesting project on the part of EEIP was that of social demarginalization — an attempt to apply gay identity and the concom- itant movement to the social situation during the last years of the Communist era.
However, this attempt resulted in an absolute fiasco, because it was at odds with the reality of life in Poland. The Western activists were surprised by the resistance towards grassroots social initiatives not only from the government but also from the activists themselves, who were hesitant to formalize their activity which would, of course, entail having to go public. Collecting contact information raised sus- picions. The editor of the EEIP bulletin became for his readers a kind of friend and advisor rather than a potential leader of a gay move- ment.
What was not successful by the end of the s was gradually coming to fruition in the following decade. The s saw the ad- vancement of the gay rights movement and the stabilization of gay identity. Let us start from the beginning. Firstly, freedom of association rights were changed, giving the regional courts, and not, as had been the case thus far, the administrative government the right to legalize associations.
This gave way to the formation of Lambda in In some larger cities there appeared a semi-open infrastructure of social life. And what was certainly the most influential in its effects was the appearance of magazines geared towards homosexuals.
One cannot overestimate their significance. Though these magazines were not sold in villages and small towns, their availability was nonetheless quite good, which is why they were able to play the role of a course book for gay identity.
It is worth considering the words that homosexuals used to identi- fy one another, to describe their own identity. Difference and otherness appear, therefore, to be a key to the identity of that time, and, at the same time, suggest a positive auto-definition in the absence of other non- derogatory terms.
First editions of magazines presented the literal assimilation of this word. This project never became the subject of a historical-sociological description and analysis, despite the abundance of necessary source material: This would have certainly been an interesting contribution to a study of Poland during the transfor- mation period. Some things should be pointed out. These events were often evoked with the expectation that in Poland something similar could alternatively: The second issue concerns a kind of separatism between gays and lesbians, who constituted somewhat separate social groups with different social agendas.
An expression of this separatism was to be found in Inaczej magazine, which had a predominantly gay focus with only a few pages devoted to lesbians. Nawet deszcz download skype. Limiter ableton download mac. Indian railway app download for symbianize. Winger football manager download.
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Instytut im. Introducing new theoretical tools goes hand in hand with opening up Comparative Studies to discourses other than literature. The Partitions are thus, according to Sowa, to be understood as a modernization force Sowa: Valley of the Shadow Tom Pawlik Religious Only the body wandered the world, my soul was stuck here. The critical potential of Central and Eastern Europe that should be observed in research on the region and its cultures dwells in its peri- pherality that seems to be an object of discontent and even shame, because it is understood mainly as a lack of autonomy in constructing identity projects and, consequently, participating in a plethora of cul- tural and economic projects of modernity.